1 Government of Botswana, Country Report, United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, December 2007, http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/botswana_2008_country_progress_report_en.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

2 Steen, Tore W., et al. 2007. Two and a Half Years of Routine HIV Testing in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 44(4):484-8.

3 Kazadi, J. H. M. M., et al. Routine HIV Testing -The Botswana Experience. Abstract presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract no. TUPE0419.

4 PEPFAR. 2007. "Côte d'Ivoire: Influencing National PMTCT Policies." PEPFAR. Available at http://www.pepfar.gov/pepfar/press/84152.htm (Accessed May 6, 2010).

5 Democratic Republic of Congo Ministry of Health, 2009. Normes et Directives en Conseil et Depistage du VIH-Draft 2009, Available at http://www.unep.org/yearbook/2010/PDF/UNEP_YB_FR_2010_final.pdf (Accessed May 18, 2010)

6 Van Rie, A., et al 2007. Roll-out of Provider-initiated HIV Counseling and Testing for Patients With Tuberculosis in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Abstract presented at the 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementers' Meeting. Windhoek, Namibia. Abstract 763.

7 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. "Congo (Democratic Republic of the) and the Global Fund." Available at http://portfolio.theglobalfund.org/Country/Index/ZAR?lang=en# (Accessed May 6, 2010).

8 Federal HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office, Ethiopia. 2007. "Guidelines for HIV Counselling and Testing in Ethiopia." Available at http://www.etharc.org/publications/ethCounguideline_2007.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

9 Ibid.

10 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. 2008. "Progress Report: UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia." Available at http://www.aidsportal.org/repos/ethiopia_2008_country_progress_report_en1.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

11 Ethiopia, Ministry of Health. 2007. Accelerated Access to HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care and Treatment in Ethiopia: Road Map 2007-2008/10. Available at http://www.etharc.org/publications/moh/eth_hivroadmap2007-2010.pdf (Accessed May, 6, 2010) .

12 Ruparelia, C., et al. Accelerating ART uptake through on-site training (OST) for provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) in Ethiopia. Abstract presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract no. MOPE0147.

13 Personal communication, Alison Surdo (Senior HIV Counseling and Testing Advisor, USAID Office of HIV/AIDS). October 24, 2008.

14 Mutisya, P., et al. Challenges for Health Care Providers in Implementing Provider-initiated HIV Testing and Counseling in Clinical Settings in Kenya. Abstract presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract no. TUPE0383

15 Kathambana, F., et al. Challenges of Scaling-up Provider-initiated HIV Testing and Counselling in Kenya. Poster presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract no. TUPDC204; A broadly similar conclusion is noted by the Kenya National AIDS/STI Control Programme on its website: http://www.aidskenya.org/Programmes/Prevention/PITC

16 Kiragu, K. 2007. "Emerging Issues Surrounding HIV Counseling and Testing in Health Facilities." Presentation at 2 Expanding and Diversifying HIV Testing and Counseling: Findings from the Field. Panel discussion sponsored by the Horizons Program. Available at https://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/ctpanel/kiragu.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010); also see Family Health International program in Kenya: http://www.fhi.org/en/CountryProfiles/Kenya/res_compcare_PMTCT_postcard.htm

17 Muttai, H. C., T. E. Hamm, and C. K. Sigei. 2007. Integration of HIV and TB Services Within the District Hospital: Experiences from the Kericho District Hospital in Kenya. Abstract presented at the 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementers' Meeting. Windhoek, Nambia. Abstract 678.

18 Odhiambo, J., et al. 2008. Provider-initiated HIV Testing and Counselling for TB Patients and Suspects in Nairobi, Kenya. Int J Tubercul Lung Dis 12 (Supp 1):S63-8.

19 Kiragu, K. 2007. "Emerging Issues Surrounding HIV Counseling and Testing in Health Facilities." Presentation at 2 Expanding and Diversifying HIV Testing and Counseling: Findings from the Field. Panel discussion sponsored by the Horizons Program. Available at https://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/ctpanel/kiragu.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010); also see Family Health International program in Kenya: http://www.fhi.org/en/CountryProfiles/Kenya/res_compcare_PMTCT_postcard.htm

20 Government of Lesotho, National AIDS Commission. 2006. "National HIV and AIDS Policy." Available at http://www.nas.org.ls/documents/National_HIVAIDS_Policy_Feb_07.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

21 Kingdom of Lesotho Ministry of Health. 2008. Lesotho UNGASS Country Report Status Of The National Response To The 2001 Declaration Of Commitment On HIV/AIDS January 2006 -December 2007. Available at http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/lesotho_2008_country_progress_report_en.pdf (Accessed May 6 2010).

22 Government of Lesotho, National AIDS Commission. 2006. "National HIV and AIDS Policy." Available at http://www.nas.org.ls/documents/National_HIVAIDS_Policy_Feb_07.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

23 Republic of Malawi National AIDS Commission. 2000. "Malawi HIV/AIDS Action Framework 2005-2009." Available at http://www.safaids.net/?q=node/426 (Accessed May 6, 2010).

24 Malawi, National AIDS Commission. 2003. "National HIV/AIDS Policy." Available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/trav/aids/laws/malawi1.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

25 Moses, A., et al. 2008. Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission: Program Changes and the Effect on Uptake of the HIVNET 012 Regimen in Malawi. AIDS 22(1):83-7

26 McCollum, E. D., et al. 2008. Implementing Routine Provider Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC): Inpatient Pediatric Experiences from Lilongwe, Malawi. Abstract presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract no. TUPE0474.

27 ARASA AIDS Rights Alliance for Southern Africa. 2009. "HIV/AIDS & Human Rights in Southern Africa." Available at http://www.safaids.net/files/ARASA_Human_rights_report_2009.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

28 Ibid.

29 Chinhacata, F. 2008. Integration of CT in the Public Sector in Mozambique. Paper presented at the International Counseling and Testing Workshop. Lusaka, Zambia.

30 USAID, 2010. "Where we Work: Mozambique." Available at http://www.healthpolicyinitiative.com/index.cfm?id=wherewework®ionCode=AFR&countryCode=MZ (Accessed May 6, 2010).

31 ARASA AIDS Rights Alliance for Southern Africa. 2009. "HIV/AIDS & Human Rights in Southern Africa." Available at http://www.safaids.net/files/ARASA_Human_rights_report_2009.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

32 Bossemeyer, D., et al. "Integrating Provider-initiated Testing and Counseling into Clinical Services in Mozambique. Poster presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Poster 403. Available at http://www.jhpiego.org/media/spotlights/pdfs/Jhpiego_DBossemeyer_0403_web.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

33 Republic of Namibia, Ministry of Health and Social Services. 2008. United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) Country Report Reporting Period April 2006 - March 2007 Available at http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/namibia_2008_country_progress_report_en.pdf (Accessed May 13, 2010) Windhoek: Ministry of Health, p. 25.

34 PEPFAR. 2007. The Power of Partnerships: Third Annual Report to Congress on PEPFAR: Chapter 3. p. 100. Available at http://www.pepfar.gov/documents/organization/81025.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

35 Ibid.

36 Cartier, S. A., et al. 2007. Rapid Scale up of Counseling and Testing in Nigeria: GHAIN Success Story. Abstract presented at the 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementers' Meeting. Windhoek, Nambia. Abstract 1141.

37 AVERT. "HIV and AIDS in Nigeria." Available at http://www.avert.org/aids-nigeria.htm (Accessed September 8, 2009)

38 Open Society Institute. n.d. "Women and HIV Testing: Policies, Practices, and the Impact on Health and Human Rights." Available at http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/law/articles_publications/publications/womenhiv_20080730/womenhiv_20080730.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

39 Personal communication, K. Kourouma, USAIDS country representative to Rwanda, October 18, 2008.

40 Pevzner, Eric, and Alyssa Finlay. 2006. "Evaluation of Access to and Acceptance of HIV Counseling and Testing Among Patients with TB in Rwanda." Available at http://www.findtbresources.org/popup/pop_02.htm (Accessed May 6, 2010).

41 Republic of Rwanda. 2008. UNGASS Country Progress Report Republic of Rwanda Reporting Period: January 2006— December 2007 http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/rwanda_2008_country_progress_report_en.pdf (Accessed May 13, 2010).

42 Republic of Rwanda. "Rwanda National Strategic Plan on HIV & AIDS: 2009-2012." Available at http://www.cnls.gov.rw/pdf/NSPfinal.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

43 Ibid.

44 Ibid.

45 Charles, Murego. 2007. "HIV Testing in Military Settings: from Policy to Practice, Rwanda Defense Forces." Presentation to 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementer's Meeting. Available at http://www.hivimplementers.com/2007/agenda/pdf/C1/C1%20Murego%20Invited.ppt.pdf (Accessed June 10, 2009).

46 Republic of South Africa Department of Health. 2007. "HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa 2007-2011." p.82. Available at http://www.info.gov.za/otherdocs/2007/aidsplan2007/index.html (Accessed May 6, 2010).

47 Ibid.

48 PLUS News, 2006, "South Africans Debating HIV Testing: Voluntary or Opt-out?" PLUS NEWS, 24 May, Available at: http://www.aidsmap.com/en/news/DC93CD0F-BA12-4EB3-AEAF-DCF1939CD7F5.asp (Accessed May 18, 2010)

49 Pope, D., et al. 2008. A Cluster-randomized Trial of Provider-initiated (Opt-out) HIV Counseling and Testing of Tuberculosis Patients in South Africa. JAIDS 48(2):190-5.

50 Republic of Sudan National AIDS Control Programme. 2008. United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) Report 2006-2007. p.10.

51 Republic of Sudan, 2008. Southern Sudan HIV/AIDS Integrated Report (2006-2007) Available at http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/south_sudan_2008_country_progress_report_en.pdf (Accessed May 13, 2010).

52 World Health Organization. 2007. Functional VCT and ART Sites in Southern Sudan. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

53 Government of the Kingdom of Swaziland. 2006. "The National Multisectoral HIV and AIDS Policy." Available at http://www.nercha.org.sz/publications/National%20HIV%20AIDS%20POLICY%20FINAL.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

54 Chouraya, C. 2008. HIV Testing and Counselling in PMTCT Settings in Swaziland. Paper presented at International Counseling and Testing Workshop. Lusaka, Zambia; Population Services International, 2008. Report on International HIV Counseling and Testing Workshop. Paper presented at International Counseling and Testing Workshop. Lusaka, Zambia, p.9.

55 Government of the Kingdom of Swaziland. 2006. "The Second National Multisectoral HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan, 2006-2008." Available at http://www.aidsportal.org/Article_Details.aspx?ID=6081 (Accessed May 13, 2010).

56 United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, National AIDS Control Programme. 2007. Guidelines for HIV Testing and Counselling in Clinical Settings. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Author, p. 5.

57 Ibid.

58 Ntabaye, M. et al., 2008. Increasing the People who Know Their Status: Scaling up Provider-initiated Testing and Counseling in Tanzania. Abstract presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract no. WEPE0045.

59 United Republic of Tanzania, 2007 HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill, 2007. Available at http://www.chr.up.ac.za/undp/domestic/docs/legislation_08.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

60 The United Republic of Tanzania, National AIDS Control Programme. 2005. "National Guidelines for Voluntary Counselling and Testing." p. 7. Available at http://www.gf.or.tz/documents_storage/2006-2-6-1-36-47_national_vct_guidelines.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

61 Ntabaye, M. 2008. Scaling-up Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling Services in Tanzania. Paper presented at International Counseling and Testing Workshop. Lusaka,Zambia.

62 The Republic of Uganda, Ministry of Health. 2005. "Uganda National Policy Guidelines for HIV Counselling and Testing." Available at http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/vct/UG_HCT%20Policy%20DRAFTFeb05.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

63 IRIN. 2008. "UGANDA: Routine HIV Testing Boosts Uptake. IRIN PlusNews; Byamugisha, R., et al. 2008. Dramatic Increase of HIV-testing after Implementing Routine Antenatal HIV-testing in Eastern Uganda. Poster presented at the 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract 537.

64 Byamugisha, R., et al. 2008. Dramatic Increase of HIV-testing after Implementing Routine Antenatal HIV-testing in Eastern Uganda. Poster presented at the 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract 537.

65 Wanyenze, R. 2008. Integration of PITC for Pediatric Inpatients in Uganda: Challenges and Lessons Learned. Paper presented at International Counseling and Testing Workshop. Lusaka, Zambia.

66 PEPFAR. 2007. The Power of Partnerships: Third Annual Report to Congress on PEPFAR: Chapter 3. p. 100. Available at http://www.pepfar.gov/documents/organization/81025.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

67 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling of TB Patients--Livingstone District, Zambia, September 2004-December 2006. MMWR 57(11);285-9.

68 IRIN. 2007. "Zambia: New Testing Method set to Improve Child Survival." IRIN PlusNews.

69 Kankasa, C., et al. 2006. Routine and Universal Counselling and Testing Among Hospitalised Children at University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. Abstract presented at the 2006 HIV/AIDS Implementers Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Durban, South Africa. Abstract 215.

70 Personal communication, Kanyanta B. Sunkutu, HIV&AIDS, WHO Zambia Country Office, October 20, 2008.

71 Republic of Zimbabwe National AIDS Council, 2006. Zimbabwe National HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan (ZNASP) 2006-2010. Available at http://www.safaids.net/files/ZNASP%202006-2010.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

72 Republic of Zimbabwe Ministry of Health, 2008. United Nations General Assembly (UNGASS) Report on HIV and AIDS. Zimbabwe Country Report Reporting Period: January 2006-December 2007, Available at http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/zimbabwe_2008_country_progress_report_en.pdf (Accessed May 13, 2010).

73 Hatzold, K., et al. 2008. Integration of Provider-initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC) as Part of Routine Patient Care in Health Facilities: Results from a Public Sector District Hospital Pilot, Zimbabwe, March-October 2007. Abstract presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract no. TUPE0384.

74 Ncube, G., and Hatzold,K.,. 2008. PITC Pilot Results from Zimbabwe. Paper presented at International Counseling and Testing Workshop. Lusaka, Zambia.

75 Cambodia Ministry of Health. 2005. National Guidelines for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (2nd ed.). Phnom Penh: Ministry of Health.

76 Cambodia Ministry of Health. 2006. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Prompt Testing of TB-HIV and Rapid Access to Treatment and Care Services. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Health.

77 Cambodia Ministry of Health. 2007. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) to Initiate a Linked Response for Prevention, Care, and Treatment of HIV/AIDS and Sexual and Reproductive Health Issues. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Health.

78 World Health Organization. 2007. Scaling up HIV Testing and Counselling in Asia and the Pacific. Manila, The Philippines: World Health Organization, p. 10, 14.

79 Ibid.

80 UNAIDS. 2009. Mid-Term Assessment of the UN Joint Programme on AIDS in China 2007-2010, Final Report. Beijing: UNAIDS, p.75.

81 UNAIDS. 2009. UN Joint Programme on AIDS in China. Available at http://www.unaids.org.cn/download/Joint%20UN%20Programme%20-%20Eng%20%20Nov%202009.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

82 Ma, W., and Hu, H. 2008. Provider-initiated HIV Testing and Counseling in China. Abstract presented at the AIDS 2008 -XVII International AIDS Conference. Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract no. CDC0518.

83 Republic of India, National AIDS Control Organization. 2007. Operational Guidelines for Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres. New Delhi, India: Author, pp. 14-5.

84 Republic of India, National AIDS Control Organization. 2007. Guidelines for HIV Testing. New Delhi: National AIDS Control Organization

85 Republic of India, National AIDS Control Organization. 2007. Operational Guidelines for Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres. New Delhi: National AIDS Control Organization, pp. 15-16.

86 Kanshana, S., and Simmons, R.J., 2002. National Program for Preventing Mother to Child HIV Transmission in Thailand: Successful Implementation and Lessons Learned. AIDS 16(7):953-9.

87 World Health Organization. 2007. Scaling up HIV Testing and Counselling in Asia and the Pacific. Manila: World Health Organization, p. 12.

88 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 2007. The Law on Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS. Available at http://www.unaids.org.vn/local/legaldocs/ Law%20on%20HIV.AIDS%20Prevention%20and%20Control%20_No%2064%20of%202006_.pdf (Accessed May 13, 2010).

89 USAID. 2007. Request for Task Order Proposal (RFTOP) Number: 517-07-005 under the Global Health TASC III Indefinite Quantity Contract. Available at http://www.usaid.gov/dr/docs/proc/rf_top_07005/rftop_517_07_005.pdf (Accessed July 21, 2009).

90 Consejo Presidencial del SIDA (COPRESIDA). 2008. Plan Estratégico Nacional (PEN) para la Prevención y el Control de las ITS, VIH y SIDA 2007-2015. Análisis de Situación y Respuesta Nacional a las ITS, el VIH y el SIDA en la República Dominicana 2007. Available at http://www.copresida.gob.do/downloads/Vol1_Analisis_de_Situacion.pdf (Accessed July 21, 2009).

91 Human Rights Watch. 2004. A Test of Inequality. Available at http://www.hrw.org/en/node/12001/section/3 (Accessed May 21, 2009).

92 Government of Guyana, Ministry of Health. Guyana National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan 2007-2011. p.9. Available at http://www.hiv.gov.gy/docs/moh_sp_nsp_2007_11.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

93 Government of Guyana, Ministry of Health. Guyana National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan 2007-2011. p.9. Available at http://www.hiv.gov.gy/docs/moh_sp_nsp_2007_11.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).

94 Government of Guyana, National AIDS Programme Secretariat. 2006. Revised National Policy Document on HIV/AIDS in Guyana. p. 11. Available at http://hivaidsclearinghouse.unesco.org/search/resources/nac_po_revisedaidspolicy.pdf (Accessed May 6, 2010).,

95 Government of Guyana. 2008. UNGASS Country Progress Report. p.23. Country Report UNGASS COUNTRY PROGRESS REPORT Republic of Guyana Reporting period: January 2006 -December 2007 Presidential Commission on HIV and AIDS. Available at http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/ guyana_2008_country_progress_report_en.pdf (Accessed May 13, 2010).

96 Government of Guyana, Ministry of Health, Guyana Responsible Parenthood Association (GRPA), and ORC Macro. 2005. Guyana HIV/AIDS Service Provision Assessment Survey 2004. Calverton, Maryland: Ministry of Health, p.20.

97 World Health Organization, United Nations Population Fund, and International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2008. Gateways to Integration: A case study from Haiti. p. 10.

98 Russian Federation, Ministry of Health and Social Development. 2008. Country Progress Report of the Russian Federation on the Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Adopted at the 26th United Nations General Assembly Special Session, June 2001 Report period: January 2006- December 2007, p. 2033.

99 Republic of Ukraine Ministry of Health , 2005. Protocol of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing. Kiev: Ministry of Health.

100 Bega, A. 2007. HIV/AIDS Policy in Ukraine A Civil Society Perspective. New York: Open Society Institute, pp. 22-3.

101 Bega, A. 2007. HIV/AIDS Policy in Ukraine A Civil Society Perspective. New York: Open Society Institute, p. 27.

102 Forum for Collaborative HIV Research. 2006. HIV Testing and Counselling: Policies in Transition. Paper prepared for the International Public Health Dialogue on HIV Testing and Counselling. Toronto, Canada, p. 36.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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