HIV Prevention Knowledge Base
Behavioral Interventions: Prevention of Alcohol-related HIV Risk Behavior
Researchers Adapt HIV Risk Prevention Program for African-American Women
Developed in the early 1990s, the United States National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) standard intervention is an HIV/AIDS education program that adds HIV prevention for drug users and their sex partners to CDC’s standard HIV testing and counseling intervention. This article describes the elements of the NIDA standard intervention and how it has been effectively tailored to meet the needs of populations at risk.
Brief Intervention for Hazardous and Harmful Drinking: A Manual for Use in Primary Care
Brief interventions—practices that identify a real or potential alcohol problem and motivate an individual to do something about it—have a positive impact on alcohol abuse. This manual provides the rationale for using alcohol abuse screening tools and brief interventions in the primary care setting. It also provides clinicians guidance on how they can quickly and effectively screen patients for alcohol problems and provide information, support, encouragement, and joint problem-solving. Sample scripts are provided, as are patient education materials. When used together with AUDIT: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Use in Primary Care, providers have access to a comprehensive approach to alcohol screening and brief intervention in the primary health care setting.
AUDIT: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Use in Primary Care
This manual introduces AUDIT, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a simple screening tool that primary care providers can use to identify patients who may benefit from reducing their alcohol consumption. This updated edition of AUDIT incorporates advances in research, clinical experience, and evaluation over a twenty-year period. It includes both interview and self-screening instruments. This manual is designed to be used in conjunction with Brief Intervention for Hazardous and Harmful Drinking: A Manual for Use in Primary Care.
The HIV and Alcohol Prevention in Schools Project
The HIV and Alcohol Prevention in Schools (HAPS) project demonstrates the effective adaptation to South Africa of two successful HIV and alcohol prevention curricula from the United States. The project combines participatory classroom and media interventions targeting at-risk adolescents in eight schools. Preliminary results indicated significant differences between students in the intervention and control conditions on sexual and alcohol refusal self-efficacy, attitudes about sex and about alcohol, and intention to use alcohol with sex. Results also suggest that when appropriately adapted for cultural differences, behavioral interventions developed in western countries may be effective in other contexts.
Motivational Interviewing (MI), a counseling technique for eliciting behavior change, has been used alcohol and substance abuse and health promotion interventions. This webpage from National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices from the United States Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration contains summaries on MI outcomes, quality of research, study populations, readiness for dissemination, costs, and replication. A link is provided to access relevant manuals.
Popular Opinion Leader (POL)
Popular Opinion Leader (POL) interventions identify and enlist the help of key opinion leaders to change risky sexual norms and behaviors. The program is based on the principle that trends and innovations are often instigated by a small but influential group of leaders, which then diffuse throughout the population. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention successfully used POL interventions in gay bars to encourage safer sexual norms and behaviors through informal social interaction. This webpage provides links to resources and tools that can be used when implementing a POL intervention, an evaluation field guide and instruments, and contact information for requesting implementation materials.
Project Northland was a large randomized community trial for the prevention of adolescent alcohol use, sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The project ran from 1991 to 1998 targeting youth in 24 schools and 28 communities in northeastern Minnesota during their 6th, 7th, and 8th grade years. The three-year intervention involved classroom curricula, parental involvement programs, extracurricular peer leadership, and community-wide task force activities. The results of Project Northland supports the effectiveness of primary prevention programs that comprehensively engage youth, parents, and the community.
South Africa HealthWise Project
HealthWise is a comprehensive risk-reduction and life skills curriculum targeting eighth and ninth grade students in Western Cape province of South Africa. An international research collaboration between Penn State University and University of the Western Cape, HealthWise was designed to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other STIs, reduce drug and alcohol abuse, and increase positive use of leisure time. HealthWise was adapted from similar curricula from the United States, TimeWise. The HealthWise project website hosts a project description as well as slides describing the theoretical underpinnings and logic model for the curriculum.
TimeWise is a published curriculum that teaches youth how to use their free time in healthy ways. The TimeWise Learning Lifelong Leisure Skills project ran from 2001 to 2003 and targeted middle-school youth in the rural Eastern United States to increase positive free time use and mitigate or prevent the initiation of substance use. Based on interrelated theoretical foundations such as Intrinsic Motivation Theory, Self-determination Theory, and Constraints Theory, TimeWise was designed to teach students to determine personally satisfying and meaningful leisure activities; understand the benefits of participating in healthy leisure; alleviate boredom and increase optimal experience in leisure time; and identify and overcome constraints to participating in desired activities. The project website includes a detailed description of the curriculum and a link to ETR Associates, from whom the published curriculum may be purchased.