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HIV Prevention Knowledge Base

A Collection of Research and Tools to Help You Find What Works in Prevention

Biomedical Interventions: Injection Safety

Link to important additional materials and websites

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Injection Safety Page

This Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website has information for both providers and patients, including educational materials, presentations, and frequently asked questions. There are guidelines on preventing unsafe injection practices and an introduction to The One & Only Campaign, led by the CDC and the Safe Injection Practices Coalition to promote safe injections. Recent publications related to injection safety are also available for download from the website.

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Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization

This website has information about the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support for injection safety in immunization programs. There is information about GAVI funding toward the cost of adequate supplies of auto-disable syringes, reconstitution syringes, and safety boxes for national immunization programs. The site also contains a report produced in 2009 evaluating GAVI's injection safety support efforts.

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Health Care Without Harm

Health Care Without Harm's website details the work done by this nongovernmental organization and its partners to promote health care practices that do not contribute to disease or ecological damage. Medical waste management is a key issue, and the site has information on waste minimization, alternatives to incineration, and a medical waste project in the Philippines that demonstrates how medical waste from a large-scale immunization campaign can be handled responsibly and safely without recourse. There are downloadable resources on a range of medical waste management issues including a global inventory of alternative medical waste treatment technologies and the health impact of incinerators.

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Making Medical Injections Safer Project

John Snow, Inc.

This website comprises an overview of the Making Medical Injections Safer (MMIS) project and country program highlights with reports from 11 countries in Africa and the Caribbean. Project information includes an overview of technical information on sustainable approaches to injection safety supported by MMIS, program achievements, and lessons learned. There is a wide range of resources including training manuals, guidelines, reference materials, and materials for advocacy and behavior change communication.

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U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Issue Brief: Medical Injection Safety

This web page details the involvement of the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in medical injection safety programs in 16 countries, including support for national safe injection policies, adoption of safe injection practices, purchase of safe injection equipment, and facilities for safe sharps waste disposal. The page cites examples of PEPFAR-supported projects to reduce excessive injections in Namibia and Uganda, sharps waste management training for health care workers in Tanzania, and safe sharps disposal in Kenya. The site also has links to useful resources from USAID and other organizations.

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SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands: The World Health Organization's Global Annual Campaign

This section of the World Health Organization (WHO) website promotes its annual hand hygiene campaign, SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands, including resources to support national hand hygiene activities and advocacy resources for use in health care settings. Key documents on the site include the WHO guidelines on hand hygiene, and an implementation guide for WHO's multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy. There are hand hygiene-related videos and tools for specific topics, including alcohol hand rub costing, evaluation and feedback, and workplace hand hygiene reminders. The information center contains locally adapted tools and media materials.

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SIGNpost Forum

Safe Injection Global Network/World Health Organization.

The home page of the SIGNpost forum provides access to the Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN) Internet forum, where subscribers can post messages, comments, and requests for technical information relating to injection safety. Subscribers can receive a weekly email newsletter on safe and appropriate use of injections. The site also has a link to SIGNpost archives and files.

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Technical Network for Strengthening Immunization Services


This website provides a forum for discussion, debate, and information sharing on the delivery of immunization services. There are reports from TechNet21's consultation meetings, operations, and surveys, and the website's e-forum enables professionals to share ideas via online forums and discussions. The tools and resources page includes a database of experts, job announcements, reference documents, and tools for resource planning and staff training. There is an extensive library of immunization-related books and research papers, as well as immunization fact sheets from 16 Asia-Pacific countries, a news page, and links to useful websites.

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Injection Safety; The Dangers of Unnecessary Medical Injections and Mishandling of Medical Waste

U.S. Agency for International Development.

This website provides information about injection safety interventions supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development, including the Making Medical Injections Safer project, which runs injection safety program in 11 countries in Africa and the Caribbean. There is also a report on a health care waste management project in Uganda run by U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief partners.

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World Health Organization Patient Safety

This section of the World Health Organization website gives access to a wealth of patient safety information and resources, from research to education and training. Much of the material is useful for health care workers, including introductory online courses, curriculum guides for teaching patient safety to medical students, and tools to support implementing change in patient safety practices. However, there are also resources for patients such as details of national patient safety workshops and events. An information center brings together a wide range of resources on patient safety, comprising both written materials and visual media.

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World Health Organization/Safe Injection Global Network

This website introduces the Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN) and provides access to its meeting reports and weekly electronic newsletters. It is also a focal point for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) training tools and publications on injection safety, including the WHO best practices for injections and related procedures toolkit, the Tool C injection safety assessment tool, and related information.

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