Focus Area:Care & Support
- Health Facility
- Community Care
- Home Care
- People Living With HIV
- Training Curriculum
- Tools to Increase and Sustain Co-trimoxazole Use
- Co-trimoxazole Management and Availability Technical Report
- Pilot Co-trimoxazole Tools Assessment, Gulu, Uganda
- Palliative Care and Pain Management
- Case Studies
- Promising Practices (G3Ps)
- Technical Briefs
- Technical Consultation Materials
What can AIDSTAR-One do for you?
From short-term technical assistance to long-term program implementation support and more, AIDSTAR-One provides rapid, evidence-based services to PEPFAR country teams in generalized, mixed and concentrated HIV epidemic settings.
People Living With HIV
- Mental Health (#)
- Nutrition (#)
- Retention in Care (#)
- Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women living with HIV in eastern Uganda.
Bukusuba J, Kikafunda JK, Whitehead RG. Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women living with HIV in eastern Uganda. J Health Popul Nutr. 2010 Apr;28(2):182-8.
HIV and AIDS have posed various medical, nutritional, social and economic problems, female-headed households being the most affected. Poor nutritional knowledge and dietary practices common among the most affected households significantly contribute to the rapid progression of HIV. However, very little data exist concerning these aspects of nutrition among women living with HIV and AIDS in resource-limited settings, such as Uganda. The aim of the study was to investigate the gaps in nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and practices and their relationship with sociodemographic characteristics in an urban population of women living with HIV and AIDS in Uganda. In total, 133 women living with HIV were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. Most (89.5%) women reported being trained on the importance of nutrition for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) and believed that it is very important to consume a balanced diet (99.5%). On the contrary, only 21.8% consumed at least three meals per day and 39.8% at least six food-groups. They also reported higher dependency on starchy staples while foods of animal origin and fruits that play vital immunity and protective roles were inadequately consumed. Results of bivariate analysis indicated that consumption of a diversified diet was significantly associated with access to food-aid (p=0.006), possibly because access to food-aid reportedly enhances the ability of the household to access other food items. However, much is still needed to understand the drug-food interaction and dietary diversification and enhance proper dietary practices through sustainable projects that ensure increased access to food. Support groups of the PLWHA are a good vehicle for communication of nutrition information and implementation of nutrition-related projects.Nutrition
- Food consumption and nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): a case of Thika and Bungoma Districts, Kenya.
Kuria, E. N. 2010. Food consumption and nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): A case of thika and bungoma districts, kenya. Public Health Nutrition 13 (4) (Apr): 475-9.
OBJECTIVE: To establish the food consumption, dietary habits and nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and adults whose HIV status is not established. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Thika and Bungoma Districts, Kenya. SUBJECTS: A random sample of 439 adults; 174 adults living with HIV/AIDS and 265 adults whose HIV/AIDS status was not established in Thika and Bungoma Districts. RESULTS: Majority of PLWHA consume foods that are low in nutrients to build up the immune system and help maintain adequate weight, and there is little variety in the foods they consume. More adults who are HIV-positive are undernourished than those whose status is not established. Of the HIV-positive adults, those with a BMI ofNutrition
- A randomized trial to determine the optimal dosage of multivitamin supplements to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in Tanzania.
Kawai, K., R. Kupka, F. Mugusi, S. Aboud, J. Okuma, E. Villamor, D. Spiegelman, and W. W. Fawzi. 2010. A randomized trial to determine the optimal dosage of multivitamin supplements to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in tanzania. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (2) (Feb): 391-7.
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that supplementation with multivitamins (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) at multiples of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) significantly decreased the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women. The minimum dosage of multivitamins necessary for optimal benefits is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy of multivitamin supplements at single compared with multiple RDAs on decreasing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women. DESIGN: We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial among 1129 HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania. Eligible women between 12 and 27 gestational weeks were randomly assigned to receive daily oral supplements of either single or multiple RDA multivitamins from enrollment until 6 wk after delivery. RESULTS: Multivitamins at multiple and single doses of the RDA had similar effects on the risk of low birth weight (11.6% and 10.2%, respectively; P = 0.75). We found no difference between the 2 groups in the risk of preterm birth (19.3% and 18.4%, respectively; P = 0.73) or small-for-gestational-age (14.8% and 12.0%, respectively; P = 0.18). The mean birth weights were similar in the multiple RDA (3045 + or - 549 g) and single RDA multivitamins group (3052 + or - 534 g; P = 0.83). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the risk of fetal death (P = 0.99) or early infant death (P = 0.19). CONCLUSION: Multivitamin supplements at a single dose of the RDA may be as efficacious as multiple doses of the RDA in decreasing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women.Nutrition
- Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected South African children.
Mda, S., J. M. van Raaij, U. E. Macintyre, F. P. de Villiers, and F. J. Kok. 2010. Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected south african children. Appetite 54 (1) (Feb): 150-5.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements or placebos for six months. Appetite tests were performed at enrollment and after three and six months. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial cereal test food served after an overnight fast according to standardized procedures. Body weights and total amount of test food eaten were measured. In total, 99 children completed the study (50 on supplements and 49 on placebos). Amounts eaten per kilogram body weight in the supplement group at enrollment and after six months were 36.7+/-17.7 g/kg (mean+/-SD) and 41.3+/-15.0 g/kg respectively, while the amounts in the placebo group were 47.1+/-14.9 g/kg and 45.7+/-13.1g/kg respectively. The change in amount eaten per kilogram body weight over six months was significantly higher in the supplement group (4.7+/-14.7 g/kg) than in the placebo group (-1.4+/-15.1g/kg). Multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months seems to significantly improve the appetite of HIV-infected children.Nutrition
- Impact of HAART on survival, weight gain and resting energy expenditure in HIV-1-infected children in India.
Banerjee, T., T. Pensi, D. Banerjee, and G. Grover. 2010. Impact of HAART on survival, weight gain and resting energy expenditure in HIV-1-infected children in india. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 30 (1): 27-37.
BACKGROUND: In resource-limited countries, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected children is still poorly documented in terms of impact on survival, the immune system and growth. Since the availability of HAART, nutrition of HIV-infected children has been neglected. AIM: To evaluate the effect of HAART on survival and immune response in HIV-infected children and to investigate the response to nutritional support. METHODS: In December, 2002 a cohort study was carried out on vertically HIV-1-infected children and was observed longitudinally for CD4(+) T-cell count, antiretroviral treatment and weight until 31 December 2007. Z-scores were calculated for CD4(+) T-cell count to account for age-related differences. Nutritional supplementation was given to all the HIV-infected children and resting energy expenditure (REE) was calculated. Mortality rates were also calculated for the perinatally infected children followed up at the HIV clinic. RESULTS: A total of 180 children were assessed, 100 (56%) of whom were on HAART. Baseline body mass index was lower in the HAART group (p<0.05). Median duration of survival from date of diagnosis was 15.1 years. Those who received HAART survived significantly longer. The average annual mortality rate was 1.2% during 2005-2006. During HAART, a CD4 Z-score increase of 1 SD was associated with a 0.35 increase in body weight Z-score (p<0.001). The increase in daily energy intake owing to nutritional supplementation was associated with increase in weight Z-score in both the no-HAART and HAART group. REE was independently associated with weight change in the models which tested association of changes in CD4(+) T-cell Z-score and daily REE/kg body weight with changes in body weight Z-score in both the HAART and no-HAART group and then separately in the two groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Survival rates of children improved which correlated with an increase in CD4(+) T-cell count concurrent with the expanded use of HAART. HAART had a positive effect on growth in HIV-1-infected children. Nutrition supplementation improved the health of children in both the no-HAART and HAART groups.Nutrition
- Randomized controlled trial of feeding a concentrated formula to infants born to women infected by human immunodeficiency virus.
Winter, H. S., J. M. Oleske, M. D. Hughes, R. E. McKinney Jr, C. Elgie, C. Powell, L. Purdue, et al. 2009. Randomized controlled trial of feeding a concentrated formula to infants born to women infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 49 (2) (Aug): 222-32.
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that concentrated formula (CF) begun within the first 2 weeks of life increases growth in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HIV-exposed infants from the United States, the Bahamas, and Brazil were randomized in a double-blind, controlled trial to receive either a CF (87 kcal/100 mL [26 kcal/oz]) or a standard formula (SF; 67 kcal/100 mL [20 kcal/oz]) for 8 weeks. This article presents results for infants who were not determined to be HIV infected based on testing at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were safety, tolerability, and growth in weight and length. RESULTS: Two thousand ninety-seven infants were enrolled, of whom 1998 were uninfected and had study formula dispensed. At weeks 4 and 8, uninfected infants receiving CF showed higher energy intake than those who were receiving SF (P < 0.001). By week 8, uninfected infants assigned to CF weighed more than infants receiving SF. There were no consistent differences in measures of tolerability, and rates of discontinuation or perceived formula intolerance were similar between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: A CF is well tolerated and results in increased weight gain compared with SF. Until the HIV status of an infant is reliably determined, early introduction of a CF in HIV-exposed children may have beneficial effects on growth. The role of early nutritional intervention remains to be determined for individuals living in countries with endemic malnutrition for whom formula feeding is a viable option.Nutrition